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Chronologie de Kaupang

Chronologie de Kaupang


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Kaupang, Norvège

Kaupang, la première ville de Norvège, a été fondée vers l'an 800 et s'est étendue sur une ceinture de 500 m de large le long du côté ouest de la crique de Kaupang.

Il y avait probablement environ 500 habitants dans la ville, qui a été désertée dans les années 900. Il existe plusieurs tumulus funéraires de l'époque viking, au nord et au sud de Kaupang.

L'emplacement de la ville était important dans son rôle de plaque tournante du commerce et de la production.

À Kaupang aujourd'hui, une maison viking a été recréée dans le style auquel on pensait qu'elle aurait ressemblé à l'époque viking. Vous pouvez également voir une maquette de la ville et découvrir comment la ville était située.

De nombreuses personnes ont creusé et fait des recherches sur Kaupang depuis les années 1800 jusqu'à aujourd'hui, bien que la majeure partie de la ville n'ait toujours pas été fouillée. Mais les découvertes nous parlent d'une société permanente et vitale qui était en contact avec une grande partie de l'Europe du Nord.

Dans l'exposition "What Kaupang Earth Hid", vous pouvez avoir un aperçu du fonctionnement des archéologues, de ce qu'ils ont fait et de ce que nous savons aujourd'hui de l'histoire de Kaupang.


Contenu

Les premiers développements Modifier

La Première Chronique de Sofia en fait mention pour la première fois en 859, tandis que la Première Chronique de Novgorod la mentionne pour la première fois en 862, alors qu'elle était prétendument déjà une importante station baltique-Byzance sur la route commerciale des Varègues aux Grecs. [5] La Charte de Veliky Novgorod reconnaît 859 comme l'année où la ville a été mentionnée pour la première fois. [4] Novgorod est traditionnellement considérée comme le berceau de l'État russe.

Les plus anciennes fouilles archéologiques du milieu à la fin du 20e siècle, cependant, ont trouvé des couches culturelles remontant à la fin du 10e siècle, à l'époque de la christianisation de la Rus' et un siècle après sa prétendue fondation. [16] La datation archéologique est assez facile et précise à 15-25 ans près, car les rues étaient pavées de bois et la plupart des maisons en bois, permettant la datation des cernes des arbres.

Le nom varangien de la ville Holmgård ou Holmgard (Holmgarðr ou Holmgarðir) est mentionné dans Norse Sagas comme existant à un stade encore antérieur, mais la corrélation de cette référence avec la ville réelle est incertaine. [17] À l'origine, Holmgård fait référence à la forteresse, maintenant à seulement 2 km (1,2 miles) au sud du centre de la ville actuelle, Rurikovo Gorodische (nommé à une époque relativement moderne d'après le chef varangien Rurik, qui en aurait fait sa "capitale" vers 860 ). Les données archéologiques suggèrent que le Gorodishche, la résidence du Knyaz (prince), date du milieu du IXe siècle, [18] alors que la ville elle-même ne date que de la fin du Xe siècle d'où le nom de Novgorod, « ville nouvelle », de Old Church Slavonic Новъ et Городъ (nov et Gorod), bien que l'historiographie allemande et scandinave suggère le terme vieux norrois Nýgarðr, ou le terme vieux haut allemand Naugard. La première mention de cette étymologie nordique ou germanique au nom de la ville de Novgorod (et à celui d'autres villes du territoire de la Rus kiévienne d'alors) apparaît dans le manuel politique du Xe siècle. De Administrando Imperio par l'empereur byzantin Constantin VII.

Légèrement antérieure à la chronologie de la légende de Rurik (qui date de la première arrivée des Scandinaves dans la région vers 858-860), un enregistrement plus ancien de la colonisation scandinave de la région se trouve dans le Annales Bertiniani (écrit jusqu'en 882) où une délégation Rus' est mentionnée comme ayant visité Constantinople en 838 et, ayant l'intention de retourner au Rus' Khaganate via la mer Baltique, ont été interrogés par l'empereur franc Louis le Pieux à Ingelheim am Rhein , où ils ont dit que bien que d'origine suédoise, ils s'étaient installés en Russie du Nord sous un chef qu'ils désignaient comme chacanus (la forme latine de Khagan, un titre qu'ils avaient probablement emprunté au contact des Avars). [19] [20]

État princier au sein de la Russie kiévienne Modifier

En 882, le successeur de Rurik, Oleg de Novgorod, conquiert Kiev et fonde l'état de Kievan Rus'. La taille de Novgorod ainsi que son influence politique, économique et culturelle en ont fait la deuxième ville la plus importante de la Russie kiévienne. Selon une coutume, le fils aîné et héritier du monarque de Kiev au pouvoir a été envoyé pour gouverner Novgorod même en tant que mineur. Lorsque le monarque au pouvoir n'avait pas de fils de ce type, Novgorod était gouvernée par des posadniks, tels que les légendaires Gostomysl, Dobrynya, Konstantin et Ostromir.

De tous leurs princes, les Novgorodiens chérissaient le plus la mémoire de Yaroslav le Sage, qui siégea comme prince de Novgorod de 1010 à 1019, tandis que son père, Vladimir le Grand, était prince à Kiev. Yaroslav a promulgué le premier code de lois écrit (plus tard incorporé dans la Russkaya Pravda) parmi les Slaves de l'Est et aurait accordé à la ville un certain nombre de libertés ou de privilèges, qu'ils ont souvent cités au cours des siècles suivants comme des précédents dans leurs relations avec d'autres princes. . Son fils, Vladimir, a parrainé la construction de la grande cathédrale Sainte-Sophie, traduite plus précisément par la cathédrale de la Sainte Sagesse, qui existe encore à ce jour.

Premiers liens avec l'étranger Modifier

Dans les sagas nordiques, la ville est mentionnée comme la capitale de Gardariki. [21] De nombreux rois et yarls vikings sont venus à Novgorod à la recherche d'un refuge ou d'un emploi, notamment Olaf I de Norvège, Olaf II de Norvège, Magnus I de Norvège et Harald Hardrada. [22] Pas plus de quelques décennies après la mort en 1030 et la canonisation subséquente d'Olaf II de Norvège, la communauté de la ville avait érigé en sa mémoire l'église Saint Olaf à Novgorod.

La ville Gotland de Visby fonctionnait comme le principal centre commercial de la Baltique avant la Ligue Hansa. A Novgorod en 1080, les marchands de Visby ont établi un poste de traite qu'ils ont nommé Gutagard (également connu sous le nom de Gotenhof). [23] Plus tard, dans la première moitié du XIIIe siècle, des marchands du nord de l'Allemagne ont également établi leur propre poste de commerce à Novgorod, connu sous le nom de Peterhof. [24] À peu près à la même époque, en 1229, les marchands allemands de Novgorod se voient accorder certains privilèges, ce qui sécurise leur position. [25]

République de Novgorod Modifier

En 1136, les Novgorodiens renvoyèrent leur prince Vsevolod Mstislavich. L'année est considérée comme le début traditionnel de la République de Novgorod. La ville a pu inviter et révoquer un certain nombre de princes au cours des deux siècles suivants, mais la fonction princière n'a jamais été abolie et des princes puissants, tels qu'Alexandre Nevsky, pouvaient affirmer leur volonté dans la ville indépendamment de ce que les Novgorodiens disaient. [26] La cité-État contrôlait la majeure partie du nord-est de l'Europe, des terres à l'est de l'Estonie d'aujourd'hui aux montagnes de l'Oural, ce qui en fait l'un des plus grands États de l'Europe médiévale, bien qu'une grande partie du territoire au nord et à l'est des lacs Ladoga et Onega était peu peuplée. et jamais organisé politiquement.


Sprat : une nouvelle aventure

La fin des années 1890 a apporté de grands changements pour les pêcheurs norvégiens, avec l'introduction de conserveries. Le sprat (un plus petit membre de la famille du hareng) est devenu l'épine dorsale de cette nouvelle et passionnante industrie. Plus tard, le petit hareng et le maquereau ont rejoint le sprat en tant que produits importants de l'industrie de la conserve. En fait, le maquereau en conserve avec sauce tomate est toujours un sandwich populaire en Norvège aujourd'hui.

Stavanger est devenue la ville de conserves la plus importante de Norvège, établissant environ 70 usines dans les années 1920 - il y a même un musée dédié à l'industrie de la conserve à Stavanger aujourd'hui !


Chronologie de Kaupang - Histoire

Voici les ressources numériques pour les Vikings dans l'histoire du monde. Les ressources sont divisées en un aperçu qui comprend des ressources générales sur l'histoire et la culture vikings. Cet aperçu est suivi des sections suivantes : Leçons (Aperçu), Genre, Programmes universitaires, Varangian Rus, l'appropriation de l'histoire des Vikings par les suprémacistes blancs pour promouvoir leur programme, Vidéos, The Norse/Vikings, Norse/Viking Lessons, Podcasts, Videos pour les Norses/Vikings, les critiques de livres et de films et les sites Web.

https://whc.unesco.org
L'Anse aux Prés. Patrimoine mondial et lieu historique national du Canada à la pointe de la péninsule Great Northern de l'île de Terre-Neuve, où ont été découverts les vestiges d'une colonie viking du XIe siècle.

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/magazine/2017/03/vikings-ships-realm-raiders-scandinavian/
"Le royaume des Vikings", Géographie nationale, Mars 2017. Découvrez la construction interactive des navires vikings et les variétés de navires vikings ainsi qu'une carte interactive montrant les itinéraires de navigation des Vikings, des Scandinaves et de la Rus.

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/vikings/
"Les Vikings," NOUVELLE, PBS site compagnon de "Les Vikings", une émission NOVA de deux heures diffusée à l'origine le 9 mai 2000. Voir la transcription de cette émission ci-dessous :

https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/transcripts/2708vikings.html
"Les Vikings," PBS, NOUVELLE, mai 2000. Transcription d'un documentaire de deux heures.

https://www.historyonthenet.com/vikings-history-overview-culture-history-viking-age
« Histoire des Vikings : un aperçu de la culture et de l'histoire de l'ère viking », Histoire sur le rapporter, éd., Dr Scott Michael Rank, vu le 13 septembre 2019.

https://www.historytoday.com/miscellanies/vikings-warriors-no-nation
Eleanor Barraclough, "Vikings: Warriors of No Nation," L'histoire aujourd'hui, 10 avril 2019. Le stéréotype viking « racialement pur » est un mythe selon Eleanor Barraclough.

https://www.ancient.eu/Vikings/
Joshua J. Mark, "Vikings", Encyclopédie de l'histoire ancienne, 29 janvier 2018.

http://www.sourcinginnovation.com/archaeology/Arch07.htm
Michael G. Lamoureux, "L'influence des Vikings sur la culture européenne", Sourcing Innovation, Mars/avril 2009. Résumé mince.

https://news.yale.edu/2013/03/08/vikings-yale-historian-looks-myths-vs-history
Dorie Baker, "The Vikings: Yale history looks at the myths vs. the history", Yale News, 8 mars 2013. En préparation de la série History Channel, "Vikings, " Tom Ashbrook, animateur de NPR's "Sur le point" parlé avec Anders Winroth de Yale, la plus grande autorité en la matière, pour démystifier les pillards légendaires du Nord.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/vikings/evidence_01.shtml
Gareth Williams, "Comment savons-nous pour les Vikings ?" BBC, Historique, dernière mise à jour le 17 février 2011.

https://www.history.com/shows/vikings/pages/vikings-historians-view
Le point de vue de l'historien des Vikings, Histoire.com. Voir de nombreux articles vikings couvrant 800 CE au 11ème siècle.

https://www.academia.edu/4106961/All_in_one_Boat._The_Vikings_as_European_and_Global_Heritage
Soren Sindbaek, "(PDF) All in one Boat. The Vikings as European and Global Heritage," Chapitre 8, pages 81-88, dans Heritage Reinvents Europe, EAC Occasional Paper, No. 7, Actes de la conférence internationale, Ename, Belgique, 17-19 mars 2011, édité par Dirk Callebaut, etc. al. Téléchargé sur Academia par Soren Sindbaek. L'article/le chapitre a présenté une enquête sur les contextes et les lieux où les Vikings sont actuellement mis en évidence en tant que patrimoine culturel européen.

https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/ztyr9j6
Histoire de Vikings-KS2, BBC Modules d'apprentissage de petite taille. Des ressources animées annotées très probablement destinées aux élèves du primaire et du collège.

https://www.history.org.uk/primary/categories/765/module/3694/romans-anglo-saxons-and-vikings/3701/the-thing-and-viking-migration
« La Chose et la migration viking », Association historique, ROYAUME-UNI. Une simulation pour aider les élèves à comprendre pourquoi les Vikings partiraient de chez eux et s'installaient à l'étranger.

vga/?page_id=7402
Module de cours, Session 2, "Moyen Âge : Invasions vikings", Radford University, Virginia Geographic Alliance. Remarque Session 1
Leçons, L'Europe au Moyen Âge, 500-1000 CE : https://php.radford.edu/

http://www.myfreshplans.com/2011/11/viking-lesson-plans/
« Plans de cours de Viking » Nouveaux plans, novembre 2011. Voir les liens intégrés pour les ressources et les idées de cours.

https://mrcaseyhistory.files.wordpress.com/2015/01/vikings-terror-of-europe.pdf
« Les Vikings : la terreur de l'Europe », M. Casey, site Web de l'histoire mondiale de l'AP, janvier 2015. Question d'essai guidée basée sur un document avec sept documents. Voir plus de leçons du site Web APWH Modern mis à jour le 1er février 2019, M. Casey, Maspeth High School, Elmhurst, NY : https://mrcaseyhistory.com/2019/02/01/viking-raiders-and-traders/.

https://www.ancient.eu/article/1251/women-in-the-viking-age/
Emma Groeneveld, "Les femmes à l'ère viking", Encyclopédie de l'histoire ancienne, 11 juillet 2018.

https://digitalcommons.wou.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1044&context=his
Kendall M. Holcomb, « Tirer les ficelles : le pouvoir d'influence des femmes à l'âge des Vikings en Islande », Digital Commons à l'Université Western Oregon, 2015.

https://vikingagepodcast.com/the-threshold
Série de podcasts commençant par Mother of Kings I-The Threshold, Podcasts de l'ère viking, 15 janvier 2019. Série de podcasts explorant la vie et la légende de Gunnhild Konungamooir, "Mère des rois", et d'autres femmes puissantes de la littérature en vieux norrois.

http://www.heroicage.org/issues/19/sheble.php
Margaret Sheble, Purdue University, "" Son tempérament était toujours le même " : les femmes résistant au colonialisme dans les récits vikings modernes ", Âge héroïque, un journal du nord-ouest du début du Moyen Âge L'Europe , Numéro 19, 4 octobre 2019. Descriptions de la façon dont les femmes vikings sont représentées dans des articles, de la poésie, des jeux de simulation, l'histoire, y compris des sites nationalistes blancs.

http://wgst.athabascau.ca/awards/broberts/forms/Jessica.pdf
Jessica Adam, "The Lives of Women in the Viking Age: The Role of Critical Feminist and Historical Assessment," Essai, pour le cours History 383, Athabasca University, Canada, 3 novembre 2014, 12 pages pdf. Un bref aperçu de la littérature, des ressources sur le genre et les femmes à l'ère viking.

https://lithub.com/to-live-like-the-women-of-viking-literature/
Linnea Hartsuyker, « Vivre comme les femmes de la littérature viking », Pôle littéraire, 10 août 2017. Les apparitions des femmes dans la littérature viking vont au-delà de la maison et des enfants.

https://www.academia.edu/271171/Gender_Material_Culture_and_identity_in_the_Viking_Diaspora._In_Viking_and_Medieval_Scandinavia_5_2009_253-269
Marie Louise Stig Sorensen, "(PDF) Genre, culture matérielle et identité dans la diaspora viking. Dans Viking and Medieval Scandinavia 5 (2009), 253-269,&rdquo Viking et Médiéval Scandinavie, 5, 2009, 253-269, téléchargé sur Academia par Marie Louise Stig Sorensen. En tant que support théorique des objectifs de théorisation de l'âge viking en tant que diaspora, cet article a réfléchi à l'impact de la diaspora sur l'identité, en particulier. genre.

https://en.natmus.dk/historical-knowledge/denmark/prehistoric-period-until-1050-ad/the-viking-age/the-people/women/
« Femmes à l'ère viking, Musée national du Danemark. Examen mince du genre et des femmes dans la culture viking jusqu'en 1050 de notre ère.

https://www.hellulandnews.com/science/2017/9/16/no-viking-women-warriors
Christopher Bjornsen, "Pas de femmes guerrières vikings", HUV, Hellu Land News, 16 septembre 2017 Journal américain de physique Anthropologie, Université d'Uppsala.

https://theweek.com/articles/865878/myth-viking-woman-warrior
Erika Harlitz, "Le mythe de la guerrière viking", La semaine, 9 octobre 2019. Jusqu'à ce que des preuves plus solides soient révélées, la guerrière viking reste un fantasme.

https://soundcloud.com/historyhit/viking-warrior-women-stephen
> 26h40 Podcast. "Viking Warrior Women avec Stephen Harrison," Le succès historique de Dan Snow Podcast, 2018. Stephen Harrison est maître de conférences en archéologie à l'Université de Glasgow et s'intéresse à la recherche sur l'archéologie de l'Irlande et de la Grande-Bretagne au début de l'ère viking.

https://soundcloud.com/historyissexy/episode-27-the-lives-of-viking-and-mongolian-women
47:54 Podcast. "La vie des femmes vikings et mongoles", L'histoire est sexy Podcast, Épisode 27, 2019. Un comparatif des genres dans deux cultures martiales.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngEWPL01yjs
15:22 Vidéo. Ragnar Dracaena, "Women in Viking Age Scandinavia", faisant partie de la série The Modern Viking, publiée sur You Tube le 4 juin 2018.

https://www.academia.edu/2601720/Bureychak_Tetyana._2012._In_Search_of_Heroes_Vikings_and_Cossacks_in_Present_Sweden_and_Ukraine._NORMA.
_Nordic_Journal_for_Masculinities_Studies._Vol._07_Issue_2_139_159
Tetyana Bureychak, « À la recherche de héros : Vikings et cosaques dans la Suède et l'Ukraine actuelles », NORMA, Nordic Journal for Masculinities Studies, Vol. 7, numéro 2, 2012, 139-159. Téléchargé sur Academia par Tetyana Bureychak, Université de Linkoping, Suède. Analyse comparative des mécanismes symboliques qui légitiment la masculinité hégomonique dans la société suédoise et ukrainienne.

https://norse-mythology.org/viking-gender-roles/
Daniel McCoy, « Rôles de genre viking », Mythologie nordique pour les gens intelligents, site Internet.

https://courses.cit.cornell.edu/hist3200/Syll3200.html
Dr. Oren Falk, The Viking Age, programme, printemps 2012, Cornell University.

https://www.academia.edu/28285446/ANTH.000_The_Vikings_Raiders_Traders_Farmers_UAB_sample_syllabus_course_pending_Sept._6_2016
Gregory Mumford, ANTH.000, The Viking Raiders, Traders, Farmers, (exemple de cours de programme d'études UAB en attente, 6 septembre 2016), Université d'Alabama, Birmingham. Téléchargé sur Academia par Gregory Mumford.

https://www.academia.edu/6094623/Syllabus_The_Viking_World_Story_History_and_Archaeology
Austin Mason, Macalester College, Minnesota, et Cameron Bradley, Carleton College, Minnesota, "Syllabus: The Viking World--Story, History and Archaeology," Université du Minnesota, sd. Téléchargé sur Academia par Austin Mason.

http://libraryguides.missouri.edu/c.php?g=28051&p=172980
Lois L. Huneycutt, "The Age of the Vikings, c. 800-c. 1200," Syllabus, History 4550, University of Missouri, dernière mise à jour le 16 août 2019. Remarque Viking Women and gender historys in Books to review at bottom of ce programme.

http://faculty.washington.edu/leiren/vikings.html
Dr. Terje Leiren, "The Vikings: A History," Syllabus, University of Washington, Fall Quarter 2019. Voir les transparents des conférences, les sites Web et les liens, et les liens vers Havamal-Les Paroles d'Odin le Haut (qui ne s'ouvre pas), Rigsthula: Le Lay of Rig, et le compte rendu par Ohthere.
Noter Havamal ressources dans la section Viking/Norse ci-dessous et voir Havamal ici : http://www.pitt.edu/

https://disabroad.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/5/2015/07/sp17-eh-sto-the-vikings-1.pdf
Madeline Hurd, "Final Syllabus-The Vikings", DIS-Study Abroad in Scandinavia, Stockholm Suède, printemps 2017.

https://canvas.disabroad.org/courses/3900/assignments/syllabus
Kim Bergqvist, programme de cours, "Le monde des Vikings", DISabroad, Stockholm, Suède, automne 2020.

https://english.hi.is/viking_and_medieval_norse_studies
"Viking and Medieval Norse Studies," Description du cours, Lectures, Universités d'Islande, Oslo, Norvège, Copenhague, Danemark. Programme de maîtrise nordique de deux ans, 1er février 2020.

https://www.academia.edu/39724176/The_First_Christian_Rus_Generation_Contextualizing_the_Black_Sea_Events_of_1016_1024_and_1043
Alex M. Feldman, "(PDF) La première génération de la Russie chrétienne : contextualiser les événements de la mer Noire de 1016, 1024 et 1043," Rossica Antiqua, n° 16, 2018, téléchargé sur Academia par Alex M. Feldman.

https://www.history.com/news/globetrotting-vikings-the-quest-for-constantinople
Christopher Klein, « Vikings globe-trotteurs : la quête de Constantinople », Histoire.com, dernière mise à jour le 19 octobre 2018. La tentative de la Rus de conquérir Constantinople a échoué. Garde varangienne employée par les Byzantins.

https://www.academia.edu/3628861/Varangian_Norse_Influences_Within_the_Elite_Guard_of_Byzance
Travis W. Shores, (PDF) "Varangian: Norse Influences Within the Elite Guard of Byzantium," Paper, Spring 2013, téléchargé sur Academia par Travis Shores.

https://www.academia.edu/26862338/What_does_material_evidence_tell_us_about_contacts_between_Byzantium_and_the_Viking_world_c._800_1000 ?
email_work_card=titre
Fedir Androshchuk, « Que nous disent les preuves matérielles sur les contacts entre Byzance et le monde viking vers 800-1000 ? Chapitre dans Byzantin dans le monde viking, Uppsala Universitie, 91-116, téléchargé sur Academia par Fedir Androshchuk.

https://archive.aramcoworld.com/issue/199906/among.the.norse.tribes-the.remarkable.account.of.ibn.fadlan.htm
Judith Gabriel, "Parmi les tribus nordiques - Le récit remarquable d'Ibn Fadlan," Aramco Monde, Novembre/décembre 1999. Rencontre d'Ibn Fadlan en 921-922 de notre ère avec la Rus viking alors qu'il remontait la Volga représentant le calife abbasside de Bagdad en mission auprès du roi des Bulgares de la Volga, racontée dans son journal intitulé "Risala."

https://www.academia.edu/4094697/Rus_in_Arabic_Sources_Cultural_Contacts_and_Identity_PhD_dissertation_
Thorir Jonsson Hraundal, "Rus in Arabic Sources: Cultural Contacts and Identity, PhD dissertation," Center for Medieval Studies, University of Bergen, février 2013. Thèse de doctorat. Téléchargé sur Academia par Thorir Jonsson Hraundal.

https://www.academia.edu/26549730/New_Perspectives_on_Eastern_Vikings_Rus_in_Arabic_Sources
Thorir Jonsson Hraundal, « Nouvelles perspectives sur les Vikings/Rus de l'Est dans les sources arabes », Viking et Journal de Scandinavie médiévale, 2014, 65-98. Suivi de la thèse de doctorat de Hraundal liée ci-dessus.

http://www.etd.ceu.edu/2018/katona_csete.pdf
Csete Katona, "Co-operation between the Viking Rus' and the Turkic nomads of the steppe in the neuvième-onzième siècles, thèse de maîtrise en études médiévales, mai 2018, Central European University, Budapest, 144 pages pdf.

https://www.academia.edu/36442346/Gotland_the_Pearl_of_the_Baltic_Sea_home_of_the_Varangians_pages_1-166?email_work_card=title
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland : la perle de la mer Baltique, patrie des Varègues, pages 1-166", B4Press, 2013, téléchargé sur Academia par Tore Gannholm.

https://www.academia.edu/33629707/Gotland_the_Pearl_of_the_Baltic_Sea_Center_of_commerce_and_culture_in_the_Baltic_Sea_region_for_over_2000_years
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland : la perle de la mer Baltique", 2013, 1-10, téléchargé sur Academia par Tore Gannholm. Voir les autres chapitres et pages de ce livre sur le côté droit de cette page.

https://www.academia.edu/22415086/The_Gotlandic_Merchant_Republic_and_its_trade_on_the_Russian_rivers_in_the_700s-900s?email_work_card=title
Tore Gannholm, "La République marchande de Gotland et son commerce sur les fleuves russes dans les années 700-900", extrait de Gotland : la perle de la mer Baltique, Centre de commerce et de culture dans la région de la mer Baltique depuis plus de 2000 ans, 2013, 139-157. Téléchargé sur Academia par Tore Gannholm. Voir plus de chapitres de ce livre, des articles, des papiers sur Gotland et Varangian/Rus sur le côté droit de cette page.

https://www.academia.edu/5473208/Gotlandic_merchants_Rus_on_the_Russian_rivers?email_work_card=title
Tore Gannholm, "Les marchands du Gotland (Rus') sur les fleuves russes", extrait de Gotland : Le Perle de la mer Baltique, 2013, 136-160, téléchargé sur Academia par Tore Gannholm.

https://www.academia.edu/36392982/_The_history_of_the_Varangians_and_their_world-unique_Medieval_Churches_1-148.pdf
Tore Gannholm, (PDF) "L'histoire des Varègues et des églises médiévales uniques au monde", 2015, 1-148 pdf, téléchargé sur Academia par Tore Gannholm. Voir d'autres ressources Gotland Varangian à droite de cette page.

https://www.academia.edu/32564170/Gotland_the_home_of_the_Varangians
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland, la maison des Varègues", 2017, téléchargé sur Academia par Tore Gannholm. Gannholm a fait la différence entre les Vikings et la République marchande varangienne de Gotland.

https://independent.academia.edu/ToreGannholm
Tore Gannholm, Académie indépendante. Voir tous les papiers, articles et monographies de Tore Gannholm sur l'histoire suédoise de la Rus Gotlandique et varangienne.

psteeves/classes/pritsak.html
Omeljan Pritsak, « L'origine de la Russie », La revue Russie, Juillet 1977, 249-273. La controverse normande contre anti-normaniste quant à la fondation de la Russie par les Normands.' Historiographie.

https://www.academia.edu/6751637/From_Sweden_to_Russia_Staraya_Ladoga_and_the_role_of_Vikings_in_establishment_of_the_Russian_State
Malena M. Vanpil, « (PDF) De la Suède à la Russie : Staraya Ladoga et le rôle des Vikings dans l'établissement de l'État russe », Université d'Uppsal, 11 avril 2013, téléchargé sur Academia par Malena Vanpil. Voir d'autres articles sur Rhos/Rus, Varangian, Gotland, Swedish Vikings in Russia, articles à droite de cette page.

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/nestor.asp
« Livre de référence médiéval : La Chronique de Nestor", Cahier Médiéval, Université Fordham. Extrait La Chronique de Nestor quant aux Varègues au pouvoir en Rus. Aussi appelé Les Chronique primaire russe.

https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/c758/061116fe62211617a0b735f56ed192fe48e9.pdf
La Chronique primaire russe, Texte laurentien, trad. et édité par Samuel Hazzard Cross (1930) et Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor (1953), Mediaeval Academy of America. Histoire du rôle des Slaves de l'Est et de la Rus varangienne dans le gouvernement du début de Kiev.

Voir plus sur Le Russe Chronique primaire au dessous de:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_Chronicle
"Chronique primaire," Wikipédia. The Tale of Bygone Years (Old East Slavic), connu dans l'historiographie de langue anglaise sous le nom de Chronique primaire ou Rus' Primary Chronicle ou, d'après l'auteur auquel il a été traditionnellement attribué, La Chronique de Nestor ou La Chronique de Nestor, est une histoire de Kyivan Rus' d'environ 850-1100 CE.

http://diasporiana.org.ua/wp-content/uploads/books/8713/file.pdf
Serhii Plokhy, "Les origines des nations slaves - Identités prémodernes en Russie, en Ukraine et en Biélorussie", Cambridge, 2006.
La Russie de Kiev était-elle le produit des activités des Vikings/Norsemen/Varangians ou était-ce un état, non seulement peuplé par les Slaves de l'Est, mais aussi créé et gouverné par eux ? Historiographie et histoire comme populisme nationaliste.

https://www.academia.edu/17005018/VIKINGS_INVOLVEMENT_IN_THE_CIVIL_WAR_1046_IN_GEORGIA
Jaba Samushia, "Implication des Vikings dans la guerre civile 1046 en Géorgie," Pro Géorgie, 2013, 55-63, téléchargé sur Academia par Jaba Samushia.

https://www.academia.edu/1429916/Rus_Varangians_and_Birka_Warriors?email_work_card=title
Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, « Rus, Varègues et Birka Warriors », dans La société martiale. Aspects guerriers, fortifications et changement social en Scandinavie, eds., L. Holmquist Olausson & M. Olausson, 2009, 160-178. Téléchargé sur Academia par Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson. Voir le livre The Martial Society avec les thèses et articles ci-dessous :

https://www.academia.edu/21764390/The_Martial_Society._Aspects_of_warriors_fortifications_and_social_change_in_Scandinavia
Lena Holmquist, Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, Fedir Andoshchuk, Anna Kjellstrom et Michael Olausson, etc., éd., La société martiale. Aspects guerriers, fortifications et social changement en Scandinavie, Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm, University, 2009, téléchargé sur Academia par Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, etc. Voir les onglets sous le titre, The Martial Society pour plus de ressources, articles, articles, monographies sur Viking Age Architecture, Viking Age Scandinavia, Fortifications, Material Culture de l'ère viking, Varègues, + 2 de plus.

https://hubpages.com/education/VIKING-40-Rurik-And-The-Rus
Alan R. Lancaster, "Viking-40: Rurik and the Rus-Russia, a Norseman Founds a Dynasty and a Super State, Hub Pages, dernière mise à jour le 1er mai 2019. Regardez à droite de cette page pour voir d'autres articles Viking.

http://www.wou.edu/history/files/2015/08/Katie-Lane.pdf
Katie Lane, "Vikings in the East: Scandinavian Influence in Kievan Rus," WOU, Western Oregon University Homepage, publié en août 2015. The Vikings, appelés Varangians in East Europe, document de recherche, printemps 2005, 49 pages pdf.

https://www.academia.edu/36999059/Bosselmann-Ruickbie_Heavy_Metal_Meets_Byzantium_Contact_Between_Scandinavia_and_Byzantium_in_the_
Albums_The_Varangian_Way_2007_and_Stand_Up_and_Fight_2011_by_the_Finnish_Band_Turisas._In_Daim_et_al._Wege_der_Kommunikation_
zwischen_Byzanz_und_dem_Westen_2_BOO_9.2_Mainz_2018_391-419?email_work_card=title
Antje Bosselmann-Ruickbie, « Bosselman-Ruickbie : Heavy Metal Meets Byzance ! Contact entre scandinave et byzance dans les albums « La voie varangienne » (2007) et 'Se lever et combat (2011) par le groupe finlandais Turisas. Dans : Daim et al., Wege der Kommunikation zwischen Byzanz und dem Westen, 2, BOO, 9.2, Mayence, 2018, 391-419. Téléchargé à Academia par Antje Bosselmann-Ruickbie, Justus-Lieberg-University, Giessen, Allemagne .

Notez d'autres articles spécifiques à l'histoire varangienne et byzantine, des monographies à droite de cette page.

https://www.metalmusicarchives.com/subgenre/viking-metal
Viking metal, archives de musique metal. Les légendes nordiques sont des thèmes de la musique Viking Metal.

https://archive.org/details/TheRussianPrimaryChronicle
La Chronique primaire russe. History of Kievan Rus' d'environ 850 à 1110, initialement compilé en 1113, Laurentian Text, The Medieval Academy of America, Cambridge, Mass., 1953.

Suprémacistes blancs et Vikings

http://theconversation.com/vikings-were-never-the-pure-bred-master-race-white-supremacists-like-to-portray-84455
Clare Downham, "Les Vikings n'ont jamais été les maîtres de race pure que les suprémacistes blancs aiment représenter", La conversation, 28 septembre 2017. Le mot 'Viking' est entré dans la langue anglaise moderne en 1807, à une époque de nationalisme croissant et de construction d'empire. Les décennies suivantes ont produit des stéréotypes « Vikings » qui soutenaient le nationalisme et la supériorité blanche.

https://www.washingtonpost.com/posteverything/wp/2017/05/31/white-supremacists-love-vikings-but-theyve-got-history-all-wrong/
David Perry, "Les suprémacistes blancs adorent les Vikings. Mais ils ont tout faux sur l'histoire", Washington Poster, 31 mai 2017. Notez la date de 2017 pour certains articles qui est le contexte de la marche et de la violence de la suprématie blanche de Charlottesville.

https://www.norwegianamerican.com/featured/viking-symbols-stolen-racists/
Judith Gabriel Vinje, « Viking Symbols 'Stolen' by Racists », Norwegian Americans, Los Angeles, 2 novembre 2017, mis à jour le 31 octobre 2017.

https://www.ancient-origins.net/news-general/why-odin-new-god-choice-white-supremacists-008604
Riley Winters, "Pourquoi Odin est le nouveau choix divin pour les suprémacistes blancs", Origines anciennes, 15 août 2017.

https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/17/world/europe/vikings-sweden-paganism-neonazis.html
Richard Martyn-Hemphill et Henrik Pryser Libell, « À qui appartiennent les Vikings ? Les païens, les néo-nazis et les annonceurs se disputent les symboles », NY Times, 17 mars 2018.

https://time.com/5569399/viking-history-white-nationalists/
Dorothy Kim, "Les suprémacistes blancs ont militarisé un passé viking imaginaire. Il est temps de récupérer la vraie histoire", Temps, dernière mise à jour le 15 avril 2019, la société Real Viking était multiculturelle et multiraciale. Alors, d'où vient la vision suprémaciste blanche de leur généalogie ?

https://www.thedailybeast.com/what-the-alt-right-gets-wrong-about-the-vikings
Erika Harlitz-Kern, "Ce que l'alt-right se trompe sur les Vikings", La bête quotidienne, 17 août 2019. Les Scandinaves de l'ère viking étaient des immigrés qui commerçaient avec le monde musulman et embrassaient la fluidité des genres – tout ce que l'alt-right méprise.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4-74nZZkAaY
10:10 Vidéo, Dr Jackson Crawford, "The Viking Funeral Ibn Fadlan Saw", publiée sur You Tube, le 17 octobre 2017. Le récit d'Ibn Fadlan des funérailles de Viking/Rus vu en 922 CE, tiré de son journal, Risala.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nena_Y0w7eM
5:57 Vidéo. "Abbasid & Vikings (Viking Raid to Caspian Sea)", publié sur You Tube le 14 décembre 2018.

https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=the+kievan+rus+in+world+history&view=detail&mid=61868B0ED575BA16EAB361868B0ED575BA16
EAB3&FORM=VIRE
38:13 Vidéo. "La Russie, la Russie kiévienne et les Mongols", par John Arnold. Published on You Tube August 24, 2017. History of the Varangian Rus and their encounter with the Mongols.

https://www.bing.com/videos/search?q=varangian+rus+in+russia&view=detail&mid=6F64D896CBA7D62668236F64D896CBA7D6266823&FORM=VIRE
18:32 Video. "Anglo-Saxon Varangian Rus in Russia, (Byzantine Empire), published on You Tube July 26, 2019. Tenth and Eleventh century 'video timeline' of Varangian Rus support of Byzantine Empire. Scroll down to see other Varangian Rus videos.

See 3 part series on Varangian Rus from Birka Viking:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X4_r-IySNKM
13:56 Video. "The Varangian Rus 1/3," Birka Viking, published on You Tube December 15, 2011.

Generally speaking, the Norwegians expanded to the north and west to places such as Ireland, Scotland, Iceland and Greenland, the Danes to England and France, settling in the Danelaw (northern/eastern England) and Normandy, and the Swedes to the south and east, founding the Kievan Rus.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6T9zVFhxkE
7:26 Video. "The Varangian Rus, 2/3," BirkaViking, published on You Tube December 15, 2011.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C06pP0rCvMs
10:44 Video. "The Varangian Rus, 3/3," Birka Viking, published on You Tube December 15, 2011. The Varangian Rus in Constantinople.

https://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/Melleno_berkeley_0028E_14454.pdf
Daniel Melleno, "Before They Were Vikings: Scandinavia and the Franks up to the Death of Louis the Pius," PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, Spring 2014. Patterns of interaction and relationship between Francia and Scandinavia from 700-840 CE. A narrative of commerce, diplomacy, and strife between the Frankish Empire and its northern neighbors which began long before the Viking Age.

https://www.academia.edu/1111867/The_small_world_of_the_Vikings_Networks_in_early_medieval_communication_and_exchange
Soren Michael Sindbaek, "(PDF) The Small World of the Vikings: Networks in early medieval communication and exchange," Norwegian Archaeological Review, Vol. 40, no. 1, 2007, 59-74, uploaded to Academia by Soren Sindbaek. "Network theory" as to Viking voyaging in south Scandinavia and overseas.

https://www.academia.edu/35309417/The_Scandinavian_Trade_Network_in_the_Early_Viking_Age_Kaupang_and_Dublin_in_Context?email_work_card=title
Tenaya Jorgensen, "The Scandinavian Trade Network in the Early Viking Age: Kaupang and Dublin in Context," Paper, Trinity College, Dublin, nd., uploaded to Academia by Tenaya Joregensen. Compare and contrast of Danish Kaupang in southeast Norway's Skiringsaal and the West Norse Dublin which used central place and network theory of two nodal points linked together by the Scandinavian trade network.

https://www.academia.edu/10125680/Fibula_Fabula_Fact_-_The_Viking_Age_in_Finland_ed._Joonas_Ahola_and_Frog_with_Clive_Tolley_
Mr. Frog, Joonas Ahola, Clive Tolley, eds., "Fibula, Fabula, Fact--The Viking Age in Finland," uploaded to Academia by Joonas Ahola, Mr. Frog with Clive Tolley. Entire 516 pages of The Viking Age in Finland, Studio Fennica Historica, non. 18,
Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 2014.

https://www.academia.edu/1499804/Viking_Ethnicities_A_historiographic_overview?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "Viking Ethnicities: A historiographic overview," History Compass, Vol. 10, no. 1, October 2012, 1-12, uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. Downham focused on identity of the Vikings and how they saw themselves along with historiographic trends of Viking ethnicities. Downham also claimed to describing comparative analysis of human immigration in this article. See other articles, monographs, papers on Vikings and Ireland, Vikings in England, on the right side of this page.

https://www.academia.edu/1499799/Hiberno-Norwegians_and_Anglo-Danes_Anachronistic_Ethnicities_in_Viking_Age_England?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "Hiberno-Norwegians and Anglo-Danes Anachronistic Ethnicities in Viking Age England," Medieval Scandinavia, 19, 2009, 136-169. Uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham.

https://www.academia.edu/1514025/Viking_Camps_in_Ninth-century_Ireland_Sources_Locations_and_Interactions?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "Viking Camps in Ninth-century Ireland: Sources, Locations, and Interactions," Paper presented at "Between the Islands" conference at the University of Cambridge, March 13, 2009, uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham.

https://www.academia.edu/13843949/Black_Pool_Hiberno-Norse_identity_in_Viking_Age_and_Early_Medieval_Ireland?email_work_card=title
Anton Amle, "Black Pool: Hiberno-Norse Identity in Viking Age and Early Medieval Ireland," Institute of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala Universitet, Master's Thesis Paper, Spring Semester 2014, uploaded to Academia by Anton Amle.

See many other monographs, papers on Norse Vikings and Ireland on right side of this page.

https://www.academia.edu/7502335/The_Viking_Legacy_in_Ireland_p._4-6_33-37_?email_work_card=title
"The Viking Legacy in Ireland," Tom Birkett and Christina Lee, eds., The Vikings in Munster, Languages, Myths and Finds, Vol. 3, Centre For the Study of the Viking Age, University of Nottingham, 2014. Chapters 1-4, Conclusion and Bibliography (pp. 4-6, 33-37). Uploaded to Academia by Mark Kirwan.

https://notendur.hi.is/thv/t_t.html
Thorsteinn Vilhjalmsson, "Time and Travel in Old Norse Society," presentation for Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1997 and also published in Disputatio, II: 89-114, 1997. Paper about daily life and technical knowledge and skills in Viking medieval Scandinavia.

https://www.academia.edu/13175035/The_Place_of_the_Evil_Infant_Abandonment_in_Old_Norse_Society
Sean B. Lawing, "The Place of the Evil: Infant Abandonment in Old Norse Society," Scandinavian Studies, 2013. Uploaded to Academia by Sean Lawing. Status of deformed and disfigured in medieval Norse society.

https://www.academia.edu/34576015/What_caused_the_Viking_Age
James H. Barrett, University of Cambridge, Medieval and Environmental Archaeology, "(PDF) What Caused the Viking Age?" Antiquity, 82, 2008, 671-685. Uploaded to Academia by James H. Barrett. Prime movers for the Viking episode and expansion in early medieval world history.

http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/657
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Project Gutenberg EBook, posted August 3, 2008. First compiled by Anglo-Saxon authorities as directed by King Alfred in 890 CE which recorded early Viking raids on the British Isles. This version translated by J. Ingram (1823) and J.A. Giles (1847).

https://www.academia.edu/3800136/Annals_armies_and_artistry_The_Anglo-Saxon_Chronicle_865_96?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "Annals, Armies, and Artistry: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 865-896 CE," uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Chronicles' focus on Viking campaigns.

http://www.helsinki.fi/varieng/people/valtonen/MAthesis.pdf
Irmeli Valtonen, "An Interpretation of the Description of Northernmost Europe in the Old English Orosius," Graduate Thesis Paper, 172 pages, University of Oulu, Finland, August 1988. Early Viking travel narratives written in 9th century Anglo Saxon Orosius, The Voyage of Ohthere and The Voyage of Wulfstan, are important because these are some of the very few accounts of 9th century Viking northernmost Europe, the rest being archaeological evidence.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11457-018-9221-3
Irene Baug, etc.al, "The Beginning of the Viking Age in the West," Journal of Maritime Archaeology, Vol. 14, Issue 1, April 2019, 43-80 seen in Springer link, first online December 7, 2018.

https://bookriot.com/2016/02/03/10-things-know-lindisfarne-gospels/
Erika Harlitz-Kern, "10 Things You Should Know about the Lindisfarne Gospels," Book Riot, February 3, 2016. A 793 CE Viking raid on the Lindisfarne Priory in northeast England has been cited as the beginning of the Viking Age in the West.

https://www.academia.edu/1514031/Vikings_in_England
Clare Downham, "Vikings in England to A.D. 1016," in S. Brink and N. Price, eds., "Les Viking World," London, 2008. Uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. Slim chapter on Vikings in England.

https://stornowayhistory.wordpress.com/2010/01/12/shakespeares-macleod-the-stornoway-play/
"Shakespeare's 'MacLeod'-"The Stornoway Play," " The (Made Up) History of Stornoway Weblog, January 12, 2010. As a youth, William Shakespeare spent many happy years in Stornoway before finding fame as a writer. His first play, 1586, "MacLeod," based on a hermit's sighting of Viking arrival/raids in Stornoway.

https://www.bl.uk/collection-items/saxos-legend-of-amleth-in-the-gesta-danorum
"Saxo's legend of Amleth in the Gesta Danorum," The British Library, Collections, nd. Norse tale of Amleth, a literary ancestor of Shakespeare's Hamlet. Scandinavian legend recorded around 1200 by Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus and first printed in Paris, 1514. Gesta Danorum was partly mythical history of the Danes.

http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sources/hamletsources.html
Amanda Mabillard, "Shakespeare's Sources for Hamlet: Ur-Hamlet, Revenge tragedy, and the Danish Tragedy," Shakespeare Online, August 20, 2000.

https://www.academia.edu/8954733/The_Chronology_of_the_Last_Scandinavian_Kings_of_York?email_work_card=title
Clare Downham, "The Chronology of the Last Scandinavian Kings of York," Northern History, 40: 1, March 2003, uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. Downham reviewed two historian's arguments as to struggle for control of York, in northern England, in early 10th century between rival Scandinavian Kings and the English. She also defends the chronology in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle(s) as to this history.

https://www.wittenberg.edu/sites/default/files/media/history/Witt-HistoryJournal_2018.pdf
"New Perspective on Memory, Religion, Trade, and the Viking Presence," Wittenberg History Journal, Vol. XLVII, Spring 2018. See articles on "Viking Fur Trade beyond Western Europe," "Christianization and Conversion in Danelaw," and "Vikings in al-Andalus."

https://www.academia.edu/12444392/Peace_and_Non-Peace_in_the_Viking_Age_--_Ottar_in_Biarmaland_the_Rus_in_Byzantium_and_
Danes_and_Norwegians_in_England
Niels Lund, "Peace and Non-Peace in the Viking Age--Ottar in Biarmaland, the Rus in Byzantium, and Danes and Norwegians in England," chapter in James E. Knirk, ed., Proceedings of the Tenth Viking Congress, Larkollen, Norway, 1985, uploaded to Academia by Niels Lund.

https://www.academia.edu/32054511/Hamlet_with_the_Princes_of_Denmark_An_exploration_of_the_case_of_H%C3%A1lfdan_king_of_the_Danes
Stephen M. Lewis, "Hamlet with the Princes of Denmark: An exploration of the case of Halfdan, 'king of the Danes,'" https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01943605, 2017, uploaded to Academia by Stephen M. Lewis. Focus on Halfdan, King of the Danes to understand "the Viking Age, not only in England but in Denmark and the Frankish realm as well."

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/vikings/religion_01.shtml
Gareth Williams, "Ancient History in depth: Viking Religion," BBC, February 17, 2011. Explanation of Viking 'pagan' religion and conversion to Christianity.

https://www.history.org.uk/primary/resource/3867/the-vikings-in-britain-a-brief-history
"The Vikings in Britain: a brief history," Historical Association, UK, last updated September 27, 2019. See more resources at the end of this article.

https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/source/xanten1.asp
> "Medieval Sourcebook: Annals of Xanten, 845-853," Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University. Northmen raids into England and France.

http://deremilitari.org/2013/06/disorder-and-warfare-according-to-the-annals-of-xanten-844-861/
"Disorder and Warfare According to the Annals of Xanten, 844-861," DE RE MILITARI, June 25, 2013. Northmen raids in northern Europe from series of annals written at Lorsch (832-852) and at Cologne until 1873.

http://deremilitari.org/2013/07/viking-raids-in-france-and-the-siege-of-paris-882-886/
"Viking Raids in France and the Siege of Paris, 882-886," DE RE MILITARI, July 4, 2013. Viking raids in France and siege of Paris from The Annals of St. Vaast.

https://www.persee.fr/doc/rbph_0035-0818_2012_num_90_2_8333
Bjorn Poulsen, "A Classical Manor in Viking Age and Early Medieval Denmark," Revue beige de Philologie et d'Histoire, Vol. 90, no. 2, 2012, 451-466. History and archaeology seem to confirm a Viking Age system of manors, but also of a classical system of manors, which is then assumed to have continued into the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries.

https://www.ancient.eu/article/1323/the-impact-of-the-norman-conquest-of-england/
Mark Cartwright, "The Impact of the Norman Conquest of England," Histoire ancienne Encyclopédie, January 23, 2019.

http://mcllibrary.org/Heimskringla/
"Heimskringla or The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway," by Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241), Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #15b. Originally written in Old Norse, app. 1225 CE by poet and historian Snorri Sturluson.

"Written sources for the Viking Age," Vikingeskibsmuseet, Denmark, Viking Museum. Much historiography of the Viking Age was/is based on foreign sources since Scandinavia did not have a literary tradition.

Kinsmen die,
You yourself die,
gods and gold die
an honourable name will never die,
one which was won
by your own work

https://www.vikingrune.com/2014/05/old-norse-proverbs-quotes-from-edda/
"Old Norse Proverbs: Quotes from the Havamal-Poetic Edda, Viking Rune. Old Norse proverbs from Havamal or Sayings of the High One, Odin.

dash/havamal.html
Havamal, ed., D. L. Ashliman, University of Pittsburg. Clean copy in English.

http://germanicmythology.com/
Germanic Mythology: Texts, Translations, Scholarship, Resources for Researchers, Germanic Mythology. Resources for Researchers into Germanic, Norse Mythology, and Northern European Folklore.

https://en.natmus.dk/historical-knowledge/denmark/prehistoric-period-until-1050-ad/the-viking-age/power-and-aristocracy/social-order-in-the-viking-age/
"Social order in the Viking Age," National Museum of Denmark. See esp. information on Eddic poem, Havamal and the poem, Rigsthula, which illustrated class divisions and values in Viking society. Note other Viking information on right side of this page.

dash/rig.html
Viking Poem Rigsthula du Edda poétique, edited by D.L. Ashliman, March 30, 2010. Poem explained Viking class divisions. See more on the Rigsthula: https://sacred-texts.com/neu/poe/poe14.htm

https://www.bing.com/search?q=viking+musical+instruments&form=EDGEAR&qs=PF&cvid=f49a76ffcd9644f38f8bc0fdf8b04ab9&cc=
US&setlang=en-US&plvar=0
"Viking Musical Instruments," Norse Mythology net, August 7, 2018. What kind of musical instruments did the Vikings have? See 23:26 video and images of Viking's musical instruments.

https://sonsofvikings.com/blogs/vikings-tv-series/viking-music
"Viking Music, Vikings Soundtrack, Nordic/Norse Theme Music," Sons of Vikings, April 20, 2018. History of Viking music and instruments and modern Viking music groups from the Vikings TV series.

https://www.academia.edu/Documents/in/Norse_mythology?page=2
Norse mythology Research Papers, Academia. See more papers, monographs below:

https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/a-viking-mystery-59648019/
David Keys, "A Viking Mystery," Smithsonian, October 2010. A mass grave found beneath Oxford University which archaeologists and historians have concluded held Viking warriors killed by Anglo-Saxons.

https://www.historyextra.com/period/viking/aethelflaed-the-woman-who-crushed-the-vikings/
Janina Ramirez, "AEthelflaed: The woman who crushed the Vikings," History Extra, May 17, 2018. Anglo-Saxon wife, mother, diplomat and, above all, Anglo-Saxon Warrior Queen. See audio podcast on Aethelfaed below:

https://www.bbc.co.uk/sounds/play/b01pzrhp
18:00 audio podcast, "Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians," Episode 20 of 30, BBC, Radio 3, The Essay, August 6, 2014.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3309771/
Andrew J. Dugmore, et. al., "Cultural adaptation, compounding vulnerabilities and conjectures on Norse Greenland," Critical Perspectives on Historical Collapse Special, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, USA, National Center for Biotechnology Information, March 6, 2012. Norse Greenland has been seen as a classic case of maladaptation by an inflexible temperate zone society extending into the arctic and collapse driven by climate change. This paper recognized the successful arctic adaptation achieved in Norse Greenland.

https://www.academia.edu/3324945/Norse_Greenland_Settlement_Reflections_on_Climate_Change_Trade_and_the_Contrasting_Fates_
of_Human_Settlements_in_the_North_Atlantic_Islands
Andrew J. Dugmore, Christian Keller, and Thomas H. McGovern, (PDF) Norse Greenland Settlement: Reflections on Climate Change, Trade, and the Contrasting Fates of Human Settlements in the North Atlantic Islands," Arctic Anthropology, 2007, uploaded to Academia by Thomas H. McGovern.

https://sciencenordic.com/denmark-history-society--culture/how-vikings-navigated-the-world/1377436
Irene Berg Petersen, "How Vikings navigated the world," Science Nordic, October 9, 2012. Article as to how Greenland Vikings navigated the north Atlantic seas using birds, whales, celestial bodies, chants and rhymes and human senses.

https://www.nabohome.org/meetings/glthec/materials/keller/KellerFursFishIvory.pdf
Christian Keller, "Furs, Fish and Ivory--Medieval Norseman at the Arctic Fringe," Journal of the Northern Atlantic, (JONA), 2005, updated November 27, 2008.

https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2016/03/160331-viking-discovery-north-america-canada-archaeology/
Mark Strauss, "Discovery Could Rewrite History of Vikings in New World," National Geographic, March 31, 2016. Canadian site could revise Viking history in the Americas.

hbenne/pdfs/greenland
"The Story of the Norse Vikings in Greenland and Why their Settlement Collapsed After 450 Years," Salem State University. Power point based on Jared Diamond's Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed.


Filipino American History Month: Jose Garcia Villa

Jose Garcia Villa, a Filipino poet, critic, short story writer and painter, is an important person to recognize during Filipino American History Month.

Villa was born in 1907 in the Philippine Islands. His early path did not involve poetry. Instead he began a pre-medical course of study at the University of the Philippines, eventually switching to pre-law. After some time, Villa recognized that his true passion was in the creative arts, and his career as a writer began.

In 1929, he published a collection of erotic poems called Man Songs. This collection was met with some controversy. But that same year, he was selected for the Best Story of the Year from the Philippine Free Press magazine for his story called Mir-l-Nisa.

Villa moved from the university in the Philippines to attend the University of New Mexico where he went on to found Clay, a “mimeograph literary magazine.” After finishing his BA there, he moved to Columbia University for his post-graduate education.

Aside from publishing various collections of poetry, Villa also added to the world of poetic style, introducing a new rhyme scheme called “reversed consonance.” As Villa explained, “The last sounded consonants of the last syllable, or the last principal consonant of a word, are reversed for the corresponding rhyme. Thus, a rhyme for à proximité would be Cours ou rain, green, reign .”

Villa also wrote something he called “comma poems,” where a comma is included after each word in the poem. As he explained in the preface to his Volume Two, “The commas are an integral and essential part of the medium: regulating the poem’s verbal density and time movement: enabling each word to attain a fuller tonal value, and the line movement to become more measured.”

Here are some samples of his comma poetry, if you need to see then for yourself. [ http://aaww.org/four-poems-jose-garcia-villa/ ]

Villa has won numerous awards, including the 1973 National Artist of the Philippines for literature. His work in both poetry and challenging traditional poetic style continues to have an impact in modern poetry, both for members of the poetry community and other Asian American writers.


You might have been.

. to one of the non-European countries (not Israel, with its high proportion of European Jews) of the eastern Mediterranean and seen straight-limbed people with blue or green eyes and fair hair.

There are two ways these people came to be here. One is that they are descendants of crusaders from Northern Europe and Scandinavia (Normans served King Roger of Sicily, Bohemond or Robert Guiscard Englishmen joined the Varangian Guard after 1069/71) fought and lived in the region, former holdings of the Byzantine Empire such as Antioch, Sicily, Palestine (Israel did not exist at the time).

The second way they came to be there was as descendants of Anglian, Saxon or Irish slaves sold by the Norse traders to Berber and other Arab chieftains or slave masters, even Byzantine slave owners who kept them for their households. With many their skin colouring and eye colour was prized. Not all English or Irish slaves were blond and blue-eyed, however. The mix that came with the Saxons and Angles also included other groups including dark Slavs from further east in the Baltic (Prussia was originally populated by a tribe known as Pruci, pron. Prutsi), sold.by their lighter-skinned Wendish neighbours.

© 2012 Alan R Lancaster


Contenu

In England the Viking Age began dramatically on June 8, 793, [4] when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on Lindisfarne. Monks were killed in the abbey, thrown into the sea to drown, or carried away as slaves along with the church's wealth. The Viking devastation of Northumbria's Holy Island shocked and alerted the royal courts of Europe. "Never before has such an atrocity been seen," declared the Northumbrian scholar Alcuin of York. More than any other single event, the attack on Lindisfarne cast a shadow on the perception of the Vikings for the next 1100 years. In the 1890s scholars outside Scandinavia began to rethink the achievements, artistry, technological skills and seamanship of the Vikings. [5]

Until Victoria's reign in Britain, Vikings were portrayed as violent and bloodthirsty. The stories from medieval England had always portrayed them as 'wolves among sheep'. During the nineteenth century, public opinions changed. The first challenges to the many anti-Viking images in Britain emerged in the 17th century. Some scholarly works on the Viking Age became available to readers in Britain. Archaeologists began to dig up Britain's Viking past. Linguists started to work on identifying Viking-Age origins for rural idioms and proverbs. The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to study some of the Icelandic Sagas.

During the second half of the 18th century the Icelandic Sagas were still used as important historical sources, but the Viking Age was regarded as a barbaric and uncivilized period in the history of the Nordic countries. Until recently, what was known about the history of the Viking Age was based on the Icelandic Sagas, the history of the Danes written by Saxo Grammaticus, the Russian Chronique primaire et the War of the Irish with the Foreigners. Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources historians nowadays rely more on archaeology and numismatics, which have helped people understand the period. [6]

The Norsemen were explorers, colonizers and traders as well as plunderers. The Vikings from Norway explored the North Atlantic and settled Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Shetland and Orkney Islands, Caithness in Scotland, Greenland and (briefly) North America. The Vikings from Denmark raided ports and coastal towns along the coasts of Europe and Britain. The Vikings from Sweden pushed east, into areas that are now parts of Russia and Ukraine, establishing trade connections with the Middle East and beyond.

By the 9th century, a strong central authority was established in Jutland, and the Danes were looking beyond their own territory for land, trade and plunder. Norway had been settled over many centuries by Germanic peoples from Denmark and Sweden who made farming and fishing communities around its coasts and lakes. The mountains and fjords formed strong natural boundaries. The communities remained independent of each other, unlike the situation in Denmark which is lowland. By the year 800, there were 30 small kingdoms in Norway. The sea was the easiest way of communicating between these Norwegian kingdoms and the outside world. In the eighth century Scandinavians began to build war ships and send them on raids. The Viking longships were capable of travel on the open seas but also had a very shallow draft, meaning they could sail into shallower bays and farther up rivers than other ships of their time. This led to the term Viking, which came from the Old Norse word vīk (meaning inlet or bay). [7] A person who went on raids was said to go "viking".

It is unknown what triggered the Vikings' expansion and conquests. This era was at the same time as the Medieval Warm Period (800 – 1300) and stopped with the start of the Little Ice Age (about 1250 – 1850). The lack of pack-ice during their time may have allowed the Norsemen to go "a-viking" or "raiding". It is believed that the heathen Norsemen suffered from unequal trade practices by Christian merchants who were given preference through a Christian network of traders. A two-tiered system of pricing existed among merchants who secretly traded with the Norse heathens. Viking raids occurred both separately and together with regular trading expeditions.

Historians also suggest that the Scandinavian population was too large for the peninsula and there were not enough crops to feed everyone. This led to a hunt for more land to feed the ever-growing Viking population. Internal conflicts, especially during the period of conquest and settlement that followed the early raids, caused the progressive centralisation of power into fewer hands. This meant that lower classes who did not want to be oppressed by greedy kings went in search of their own lands. Those who settled Iceland created Europe's first modern republic with a yearly assembly of elected officials called the Althing.

The earliest date given for a Viking raid is 787 AD when, according to the Chronique anglo-saxonne, a group of men from Norway sailed to Portland, in Dorset. There, a royal official mistook them for merchants. They killed him when he tried to lead them to the king's manor to pay a trading tax on their goods. The beginning of the Viking Age in the British Isles is, however, often given as 793. It was recorded in the Chronique anglo-saxonne that the Northmen raided the important island monastery of Lindisfarne:

"AD. 793. This year came dreadful fore-warnings over the land of the Northumbrians, terrifying the people most woefully: these were immense sheets of light rushing through the air, and whirlwinds, and fiery dragons flying across the firmament. These tremendous tokens were soon followed by a great famine: and not long after, on the sixth day before the ides of January in the same year, the harrowing inroads of heathen men made lamentable havoc in the church of God in Holy-island (Lindisfarne), by rapine and slaughter." -Chronique anglo-saxonne

In 794, according to the Annals of Ulster, there was a serious attack on Lindisfarne's mother-house of Iona, which was followed in 795 by raids on the northern coast of Ireland. From bases there, the Norsemen attacked Iona again in 802, causing great slaughter amongst the Céli Dé Brethren, and burning the abbey to the ground.

The end of the Viking Age is traditionally marked in England by three major events: the failed invasion by Haraldr Harðráði, who was defeated by Saxon King Harold Godwinson in 1066 at the Battle of Stamford Bridge in Ireland, the capture of Dublin by Strongbow and his Hiberno-Norman forces in 1171 and in Scotland by the defeat of King Hákon Hákonarson at the Battle of Largs in 1263. Harold Godwinson was subsequently defeated within a month by William, Duke of Normandy, who was another descendant of Vikings. Normandy had been acquired by Normands (Norsemen) in 911. Scotland took its present form when it regained territory from the Norse between the thirteenth and the fifteenth centuries.

Most Scandinavian historians and archaeologists give a different definition. Instead, the Viking age is said to have ended with the establishment of royal authority in the Scandinavian countries and the adoption of Christianity as the dominant religion. The date is usually put somewhere in the early 11th century in all three Scandinavian countries. The end of the Viking Age in Norway is marked by the Battle of Stiklestad in 1030. They proclaimed Norway as a Christian nation, and Norwegians could no longer be called Vikings.

The Kingdom of the Franks under Charlemagne was especially hard-hit by Viking raiders, who could sail down the Seine without much difficulty. Near the end of Charlemagne's reign and throughout the reigns of his sons and grandsons, a string of Viking raids began, leading to a Scandinavian conquest and settlement of the region now known as Normandy.

In 911, French King Charles the Simple made an agreement with the Viking warleader Rollo, a chieftain of either Norwegian or Danish origin. [8] Charles gave Rollo the title of duke and granted him possession of Normandy. In return, Rollo swore fealty to Charles, converted to Christianity, and swore to defend the northern region of France against raids by other Viking groups. Several generations later, the Norman descendants of these Viking settlers identified themselves as French and brought the French language and their variant of French culture to England in 1066. With the Norman Conquest, they became the ruling aristocracy of Anglo-Saxon England, leading to the change from Old English to Middle English language.

At the start of the Viking age, the Vikings believed in the Norse religion. They believed in a pantheon of gods and goddesses, as well as Valhalla, a heaven for warriors. The lower class of society would go to a place called "hel", similar to life on earth. According to Viking beliefs, Viking chieftains would please their war-gods by their bravery, and would become "worth-ship" that is, the chieftain would earn a "burial at sea". They also performed land burials which often still included a ship, treasure, weapons, tools, clothing and even slaves and women buried alive with the dead chieftain, for his journey to Valhalla and adventure in the after-life. Poets composed sagas about the exploits of these chieftains, keeping their memories alive.

Freyr and his sister Freya were gods of "fertility", which means being able to grow. They made sure that people had many children and that the land produced plenty of crops. Some farmers even called their fields after Freyr, in the hope that this would ensure a good harvest. Toward the end of the Viking Age, more and more Scandinavians were converted to Christianity, often by force. The introduction of Christianity did not immediately end Viking voyages, but it may have been a factor that helped the Viking Age to an end.

Some of the most important trading ports during the period include both existing and ancient cities such as Jelling (Denmark), Ribe (Denmark), Roskilde (Denmark), Hedeby (Denmark, now Germany), Aarhus (Denmark), Vineta (Pomerania), Truso (Poland), Kaupang (Norway), Birka (Sweden), Bordeaux (France), Jorvik (England), Dublin (Ireland) and Aldeigjuborg (Russia).

In the late 19th century (1800s), Richard Wagner and other artists in the Romantic period made operas and other artwork about ancient Germanic culture. They liked the Vikings because they were not Greeks or Romans. They came up with the idea of Vikings wearing fur clothes and helmets with wings or horns on them and drinking out of hollowed-out animal horns. Some ancient Germans wore helmets with horns on them, but real Vikings did not. Wagner and his partners deliberately dressed the actors in the opera Ring des Nibelungen so they would look like ancient Germans and so the audience would feel like modern Germans came from medieval Vikings. [9] [10]


Midgard Historical Centre, Borre, Norway

Midgard Historical Centre in Borre lies next to Northern Europe’s largest assembly of monumental grave mounds from the Iron Age and Viking Age.

The centre opened in 2000 with the primary task of creating and spreading knowledge about the Viking Age in the Vestfold County.

The grave mounds in Borre constitute one of Norway’s most important national heritage sites, and it was a place of power and influence in Europe during the Viking Age. There were originally at least nine huge mounds in the area, as well as three cairns and at least 25 smaller cairns.

The Vikings were not only warriors, but skilful sailors and tradesmen. Their ships were built to withstand long journeys, and traces of Nordic settlements have been found as far away as Newfoundland in North America.

Many of the artefacts from Borre are of an eastern character and bear witness to a strong cultural influence from the countries around the Baltic Sea, Poland and Russia.

Finds from graves in Kaupang in the southern part of Vestfold show us that the Vikings were in close contact with today’s Central Europe, England, France, Ireland and the areas around the Mediterranean. Several coins found in Vestfold originate from Kufa in Iraq.

The Vikings were very fashion orientated they didn’t just bring anything back home, but they shopped for luxury items abroad and equipped themselves with the latest weaponry.

The museum has permanent exhibitions showing Viking finds from Borre and daily life in Viking times. Special exhibitions, seminars and lectures are organised regularly.

Outside, an archaeological playground fires children’s imagination and they can play Viking games, shoot with a bow and arrow and take part in “archaeological digs”.

A selection of books and souvenirs are available for sale in addition to a friendly café with excellent views of the park.


Homecoming and English: Past, Present, and Future

Homecoming & Family Weekend, October 15 th – 17 th , is an event for alumni, families, community members, and friends of CSU. It’s a time when we come together to celebrate the past, present, and future of Colorado State University. An integral part of that past, present, and future is the CSU English department. Recently there’s been lots of excitement with the hiring of new faculty, the arrival of the 2015 freshman class English majors, various engaging events, and our return to a refurbished Eddy Hall.

To celebrate that return, our homecoming along with CSU Homecoming, the English department will be hosting our inaugural Homecoming open house on Friday, October 16, 2015, 2:00-4:00 PM. We will be celebrating our return to the newly remodeled Eddy with music, food, fun, and, of course, words, beautiful words. Alumni and friends can make their way to the third floor and check in at Eddy 300, and we will have refreshments available in the Whitaker Conference Room. We will be offering tours of the building, with stops in the CSU Writing Center and a remodeled classroom. English Department Chair Louann Reid will offer some words of welcome and rededication at 3:00 PM, followed by a special presentation in honor of the occasion. We hope you can join us for this very special event.

And what about that past, present, and future? As we were packing up Eddy Hall to move out for the remodel, we discovered several copies of Words and Deeds, a newsletter edited by Jim Tanner and Jim Work in the 1970s, who described it this way:

Words and Deeds is a newsletter in which the energetic (if not divine) deeds of the Colorado State University Department of English become words for the world at large. Published two times a year in Fort Collins, Colorado distributed to our faculty, staff, students, friends, and competition.

Spring 2015 English Department Communications Intern Kara Nosal used these newsletters and other sources to put together a timeline that gives a sense of our history as a university and a department.

English Department Timeline

1879- Colorado State Agricultural College is born. It is comprised of twenty students and three professors in total.

1879- E.E. Edwards, president of the college, acts as the lone English teacher.

1886- Elizabeth G. Bell is the first English professor hired by the college.

1885- The library holds “1,000 bound volumes.”

1904- Virginia Corbett is named Professor of History and Literature.

1914- B.F. Coen heads the English and History Department while Corbett is reduced to an Assistant Professor. (Coen runs a tight ship! He requires each freshman to write a 150-page theme before moving on to upper-division classes)

1917- (From the Summer 1975 edition of Words and Deeds): During World War I, “All students who volunteered or were drafted to go to the front [lines] were to be given automatic passing grades and full credit in all classes.”

1920- Alfred Westfall and Ruth Wattles both become Associate Professors in the English and History Department.

1928- The first meeting of the “Scribbler’s Club”—an exclusive 12-member group for upperclassmen studying creative writing— is held

1929- There are twelve English faculty members

1935- Colorado Agricultural College changes its name to the Colorado State College of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts (Go! Fight! Win CSCAMA!)

1939-Willard O. Eddy is hired as an instructor in English, and History and English are separated into two distinct departments

1941-The large ballroom of Johnson Hall is used as a barracks to house some of the 1400 uniformed personnel on campus during the Second World War

1943- Alfred Westfall publishes, “What Speech Teachers May Do to Win the War” in the Quarterly Journal of Speech

1945- Colorado State College of Agricultural and Mechanical Arts changes its name to Colorado A & M (Interesting fact: Spring 2015 English Department Communication Intern Marina Miller’s great uncle was in the last class to graduate as Aggies)

1945- English faculty members number 13

1958-The Fine Arts Series is established after a fine-arts festival is held

In 1962, you could get your textbooks at the CSU bookstore and a carton of Salems.

1963- The original Eddy Hall is constructed

1965-1969- The Colorado State Review is established but due to funding cuts its initial run only lasts for four years

1975- The Intensive English Program (now INTO CSU) begins

1976- Colorado State Review is revived thanks to Wayne Ude and Bill Trembelay of the Creative Writing Program

1977- English faculty number 41 and 90 courses are offered

1979- Kate Keifer establishes the Writing Center in response to the national writing and literacy crisis, an educational drought in which many students arrived to college without adequate composition preparation

1981- Colorado State University is the first in the nation to create a computer-supported writing laboratory

1987 – Quelqu'un a fait un sandwich (nous n'avons pas découvert beaucoup d'informations sur les années 80 et le début des années 90 dans nos recherches, mais nous sommes à peu près sûrs que c'est exact)

1996- Mary Crow, professeure, traductrice et poétesse de la CSU, est nommée poète lauréate du Colorado (elle sera ensuite reconduite dans ses fonctions en 2000)

1997- Les infâmes eaux de crue de Fort Collins déchirent Eddy Hall, détruisant 500 000 livres collectés par les professeurs

Photo de personnes faisant du vélo devant Eddy Hall lors de l'inondation CSU de 1997 le 29 juillet 1997. Photo reproduite avec l'aimable autorisation de CSU Photography, Department of Creative Services.

1997- Le programme de base des arts et des sciences (ASCC) définit les cours de base standard pour tous les étudiants des arts libéraux et des sciences naturelles

2003- Début de l'utilisation du Centre de rédaction en ligne qui vient d'être créé. Les étudiants des cours de composition d'arguments écrits requis apprennent à télécharger des documents importants et à télécharger des articles pour les professeurs.

Aujourd'hui - Nous avons quatre membres du personnel qui travaillent dur et 82 membres du corps professoral

Été 2015 – La salle Eddy nouvelle et améliorée est terminée !

16 octobre 2015- Journée portes ouvertes inaugurale des Retrouvailles en anglais, 14h00-16h00

Note de Kara: Bien sûr, ce n'est pas une chronologie complète du département d'anglais. En parcourant des pages et des pages d'articles de journaux, de comptes rendus de réunions de département et de bulletins d'information, j'ai commencé à mieux comprendre le programme d'anglais de la CSU dans son ensemble. J'ai réalisé combien de mes anciens professeurs étaient des auteurs reconnus à l'échelle nationale, des lauréats de prix et des changeurs de jeu globaux, aidant le programme d'anglais à prospérer. De mes recherches, j'ai compris que le département d'anglais a une longue histoire de personnes passionnées qui poussent constamment pour plus d'opportunités pour leurs étudiants. Sachez que ces professeurs d'anglais ont bien plus à offrir qu'il n'y paraît, ils pourraient même être disposés à partager certaines de leurs vies passées avec vous si vous le demandez !

Si je devais commencer à lister les membres du corps professoral qui ont amélioré le département d'anglais, je devrais lister l'ensemble du corps professoral et la chronologie serait longue d'un kilomètre ! Personne, passé ou présent, n'est dispensé de faire de notre programme en anglais ce qu'il est aujourd'hui.


Voir la vidéo: Lhistoire cachée de la Bible que nous cache le vatican - documentaire en français (Février 2023).

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